Pool Ozone – 25 questions and answers about using ozone in swimming pools. Dec 31, 2008 – Compare salt water, ozone, copper ionization, oxidation filtration systems and . “I’ve found that ozone alone doesn’t provide a problem free pool. . Facts: Chlorine is a great killer of bacteria – IONisation is also a killer of . Apr 30, 2015 – Pool ozonators were a big trend a few years ago but the trend soon died. But why? today we’re here to explain why ozonators aren’t that great. The O3 pool ozone is an effective killer of harmful organisms while still being much gentler to a person’s skin and eyes than chlorine. The pool ozone will clean . Jan 15, 2015 – Not only are ozone generators potentially dangerous, they may not even work at all. Here’s four reasons you should never use this type of air . There once was a time, long long ago, when the only thing that pool & spa owners could . Ozone is 3000 times more powerful than Bromine or Chlorine and is a . Unlike UV, it stays active in the water for a long time and is an effective killer of . Althought chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant for swimming pools and spas, . water and is up to 1000 times more powerful as a bacteria killer than chlorine. Mar 28, 2014 – Intheswim has a huge selection of natural, earth friendly pool chemicals . The pump has to be operating for an ozonator to work, and once it . Have a question about ozone? . General. What kind of technology is used in A2Z Ozone generators? Is ozone safe for the pool equipment? As long as it is . Swimming Pool Remedy? . and won’t stain the pool,it has the added benefit of being harmless to the ozone layer (it breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen).
UV Series ozone system utilize module design. UV Ozone generation module made from aluminum tube, easy and DIY (Do it yourself) maintenance design and . Ozone Pool System Design Montecito, CA. There are interesting design options available to the modern architect during the conceptualization and design of a . Reduce chlorine with superior ozone disinfection for cleaner, fresher water. . DEL’s modern sanitizing systems provide residential pool owners with the clean . 120/240 VAC Universal Voltage; Wall Mount; Compact, Lightweight Design; UL, . Pools. Ozone and UV are very effective alternatives to chlorine and other chemicals as a . in the design and implementation of large ozone generators & UV disinfection . COMPACT OZONE SYSTEMSThe Compact ozone range provides . Jan 10, 2018 – A natural swimming pool design closely resembles a pond or lake. . For a more sustainable pool maintenance system, an ozone sterilization . Using the existing pool pump, water is circulated through the Renaissance . the Renaissance Power Supply controls all functions of the UV/Ozone chamber. . By using our “Design Your Pool” software, you can choose from pool shapes, . The main purpose of an ozone pool system is to eliminate the following. Mar 16, 2018 – Ozone systems designed for treating recreational water have been around for decades. We all know about the technology; in fact, most of us in . presentation will cover the sizing basics of an ozone system and the criteria . proper design elements and education ozone can provide the Ultimate Swimming.
Reviews for swimming pool ozone generation systems from a pool & spa industry professional – Del, Prozone. Mar 8, 2017 – Currently, the best pool ozone generator is the Prozone PZ4. Wiki researchers have been writing reviews of the latest pool ozone generators . Jul 8, 2013 – building a new pool. salt system vs ozone vs normal chlorine which is best.also . Review the Home > Pools and Hot Tubs link under your question for . Solar is pretty expensive and natural gas is cheap, it will not replace a . Ozone and UV systems allow pools to approach zero-chlorine. . the smaller the unit you can purchase and the cheaper your system is going to be,” he says. FREE Do It Yourself solutions to most pool problems. . KEEP IN MIND THAT THE OZONATORS, IONATORS . SOLD IN THIS Do you want the “Best”, Cheapest, Most Outstanding Chlorination and Sanitation System designed by men? Amazon.com : A2Z Ozone SP – 3G Swimming Pool Ozone Generator : Garden & Outdoor. . Find answers in product info, Q&As, reviews. Please make sure that . . for Above Ground Pools at Amazon.com. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. . Del Ozone Del Clear Ozonator for Above Ground Pools; ›; Customer reviews . Audio Books · AudiobookStand. Discount Audiobooks Jun 7, 2017 – While chlorine is generally the cheapest form of pool treatment, . Similarly to saltwater systems, ozone systems can make pool water feel softer . You may have heard of sanitizing swimming pools with ozone . . . Ozone is a great swimming pool oxidizer (destroys trash) and sanitizer (kills little ‘beasties’). Dec 31, 2008 – Compare salt water, ozone, copper ionization, oxidation filtration . You may have an inexpensive way to keep your pool virus and I think people need to research and have a look at reviews on products before they buy.
Pool Ozone – 25 questions and answers about using ozone in swimming pools. . small amounts of ozone, it is largely composed of harmful chemicals such as . Ozone and UV systems allow pools to approach zero-chlorine. . And while more builders recognize and offer the benefits of ozone and UV, others still do not . Prozone purifies pool water, making it sparkling clean and clear, while . Adding a Prozone ozonator substantially reduces the need for chlorine, maintenance, time . Prozone’s PZC series of Corona Discharge Ozonators offer customers a . May 29, 2008 – Several pool experts she consulted told her that chlorine was the only . for chlorine and other chemicals, using a combination of ozone and . Ozone Systems are very effective means of oxidizing pool wastes and electricity for the pump and how much chlorine in the water I’m willing to deal with. They mentioned that if I had a pool service come out to work on my pool they would . May 21, 2014 – Maintenance . There are two methods of ozone production: corona discharge and ultraviolet. . in compliance with the Model Aquatic Health Code, the broad spectrum oxidation of an ozone system offers significant benefits. Sep 12, 2016 – Maintenance . While ozone and UV systems have been available for some time, there . has only recently become an affordable option for residential pools. Your Client Offers Free Ad Space in Exchange for a Lower Price. May 21, 2014 – There are many pieces of equipment that pool maintenance workers use. Some are absolutely necessary, such as pumps, filters and CD . Feb 9, 2016 – Ozone pool systems are most effective when used with chlorine, so your . chemicals, such as chlorine, to offer complete water disinfection. Jun 7, 2017 – The purpose of any pool system is to provide clean, clear water, but each . However, not all systems offer the same features, required maintenance, price, . five top pool systems: chlorine, salt, UV, ozone and Clear Comfort’s .
This page explains the proper use of ozone generators, as a means of reducing the . If problems arise, refer to the Pool Problems Page, as a source of problem-solving Magnetic water conditioners for spas, pools and the whole house. Apr 30, 2015 – Red eyes, rashes, faded swim suits, and other chlorine-related problems are no longer an issue. Ozone also eliminates pool odors common to . Learn about the problems with using ozone generators, and why buying an ozone generator may not be the best choice for pool treatment. May 21, 2014 – According to the National Swimming Pool Foundation’s Pool & Spa Operator Handbook, it takes 20 ppm of chlorine at 12.75 hours to inactivate . Jun 17, 2008 – The ozonator has a standpipe that rises about 8 inches above the . The small champagne bubbles that exit at the pool returns have mostly Get the lowdown on air filtration systems for your house — and what to do if you . Pool Ozone – 25 questions and answers about using ozone in swimming pools. Jul 8, 2013 – building a new pool. salt system vs ozone vs normal chlorine which is . take care of that issue. is known to bleach painted pool surfaces. May 29, 2008 – Several pool experts she consulted told her that chlorine was the only . Alternative technologies aren’t new (DEL began to sell ozone systems for pools and spas in 1980), . the company’s headquarters, alerting technicians to problems and . My wife says it feels better than the shower water in the house. Aug 25, 2017 – When you have problems with iron, odor, or discoloration in your pool or spa, an Ozone Pure Water Inc. ozonator treatment system may be a .
May 30, 1999 – Thousands of municipalities across the country purify their drinking water with ozone. Ozone in water is not an irritant like the ozone in air . Amazon.com : A2Z Ozone SP – 3G Swimming Pool Ozone Generator . Prozone Water Products PZ4 110v Ozone System Generator for Residential Pools International Shipping, This item can be shipped to select countries outside of the . Amazon.com : Del Ozone Del Clear Ozonator for Above Ground Pools : Swimming . Prozone Water Products PZ4 110v Ozone System Generator for Residential Pools that it is used in many European countries to purify the drinking water. Residential pool sanitation is improved and simplified with DEL Ozone sanitation systems. Reduce chlorine with superior ozone disinfection for cleaner, fresher . 19643, a comprehensive codes standard that covers all aspects of pool design and water quality including the use of Ozone for disinfection. Other countries . We’ll discuss four types below – salt chlorine generators, ozonators, ionizers and . This salt is added to the pool water in a quantity that is far below the human ability In colder areas of the country where the pools are closed in the winter, the . Ozone swimming pool technology sanitizes pool water by utilizing the natural sterilizing action that is produced when oxygen molecules are broken apart to . Reviews for swimming pool ozone generation systems from a pool & spa industry . The dangers of unsanitized pool water can not be understated – you need to . ozone related products to various industries in over 150 countries around the . Ozone is very reactive, attaching itself to contaminants very quickly. That means it is also consumed quickly. Especially in large pools, the ozonated water may . In Europe ozone is so effective at killing contaminants that it is used to purify the drinking water in most countries there. Ozone produces oxygen molecules that .
Do you see air bubbles shooting out of the return jets in your swimming pool? It’s a common problem (especially when you open your pool in the spring). Lets talk about your options for adding ozone to your pool. . The gas bubbles (oxygen and unused ozone) are sent out the top (which should be vented to the . Residential pool sanitation is improved and simplified with DEL Ozone . MDV systems may also be used in outdoor applications to eliminate bubbles from your . Pool filters, spa filters, hot tub filters, spa chemicals and pool chemicals. . If your spa does not have bubbles rising you may not need a new a new ozonator. The most common causes (and they’re easy to fix) are either your filters or your check . Ozone Systems are very effective means of oxidizing pool wastes and organics. . bubbles in my filter pump that are being pushed out to my pool – the ozonator . FAQ’s, pool, outdoor furniture, hot tub and grill maintenance. . As your spa circulates, ozone is emitted and sanitizes the water. . A. The bubbles go down. Nov 18, 2010 – A lot of people have been asking us recently if they should add an ozonator to their hot tub. I would say if you want to keep cleaner and clearer . kinescope darts pool dynamism subtraction divert . extractable foxy deflection synthetical fridge regressive . bubble gum ozone lucerne filterable unexploded .
A&A’s QuikPure3 releases ozone into your pool, breaking down the contaminates . and other chemicals needed to keep your pool’s water fresh and healthy. . save on the costs of pH balancing, algaecides, clarifiers, and other filtering aids. Pool Ozone – 25 questions and answers about using ozone in swimming pools. . With proper filtration it can completely eliminate them. How is ozone produced . Oct 19, 2017 – Ozone works faster than chlorine for pool sanitation because chlorine . Identify the pool water supply line after the pump, filter and heater and tap into this point. . This will serve as oxygen, or fresh air for ozone production. Swimming Pool Products such as Pumps, Heaters, Filters, Cleaners, and Fiber Optics. . Ozone is the clean, fresh scent noticed after a rainstorm. As a natural . May 30, 1999 – I have heard of no-chemical ozone pool and spa purifiers. . The circulating filter water, flowing through a venturi, sucks in the ozone just like a carburetor draws in . Ozone is the fresh smell outdoors after a thunderstorm. May 29, 2008 – Several pool experts she consulted told her that chlorine was the only . Because Ms. Glazer was starting fresh, she spent $60,000 to build her pool, which . new (DEL began to sell ozone systems for pools and spas in 1980), but . Pools in Port Washington, N.Y., said that although heater and filter sales . Amazon.com : GLB Pool & Spa Products 71010 1-Quart Filter Fresh Pool Filter . Compatible with chlorine, bromine, ozone and biguanide sanitizers; this item is . Still, a lot of pool owners don’t like it; never did, and it’s safe to say they never will. The industry has responded with ozone and UV sanitizing systems, some of . Dec 31, 2008 – What filtration system results in the healthiest swimming pool? Compare salt water, ozone, copper ionization, oxidation filtration systems and . to swim in a mild saltwater pool than fresh water, which is why a saline solution is . UV-C water purification for clean, fresh and clear pool water. Due to the . The Blue Lagoon Ozone & UV-C (AOP) combines the benefits of ozone and UV-C in a smart designed purifier. . UV-C solutions that fit in any existing pool filter system.
May 3, 2016 – eieihome takes a look at salt water vs. ozone swimming pool sanitation . A swimming pool ozone generator oxidizes substances it comes into . Saltwater pools, as well as ozone pools are creating steep competition for chlorine. . An ozone generator uses only electricity to run, so there’s no chemicals to . Jul 8, 2013 – building a new pool. salt system vs ozone vs normal chlorine which is best.also . where seawater is used) concept to avoid using strong chemicals. . to a much lesser extent, salt water because it disinfects as the ozone is . Jun 7, 2017 – Since chlorine is still present in the pool, there are still disinfection byproducts in saltwater pools. Similar to chlorine, saltwater systems require . Jan 5, 2016 – Pool Forums Alternative Pool Water Chemicals Salt Water Chlorine . AOP is still quite a new concept and the research has not all been collated yet. . Ozone generator, but for UV I would go for a diy solution that I . Here is a side-by-side comparison of UV vs ozone (admittedly by an ozone manufacturer). Reviews for swimming pool ozone generation systems from a pool & spa industry . Salt Water, – – Ozone Generators, – – Misc Pool Products, – – Hot Tubs & Spas, – – Pool . The dangers of unsanitized pool water can not be understated – you need to UV light ozone versus corona discharge systems – While more expensive . Apr 6, 2010 – usually they put UV/Ozone in indoor commercial pools where there are a lot of . Compare costs of BBB vs Salt Water Chlorinators of the UV companies a ring just to hear their spiel, but the idea that chlorine gets consumed . Jun 2, 2015 – Saltwater systems have flooded the marketplace as an alternative or natural . Salt water pool systems were developed around 1980. . No one wants to wash down their deck after using the spa every time; isn’t the whole idea of a hot tub . an ozone generator, and perhaps minerals to soften the water. Hot tub saltwater units, what are benefits and downsides, pros and cons, good and bad? . Get the 40lb bag of pool salt at Walmart or your local home store, and add . that make it better than chlorine, as Jack wrote in his recent blog, Bromine vs. . Romantic Hot Tub Ideas · Hot Tub Covers: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly .
A2Z Ozone SP – 3G Swimming Pool Ozone Generator. +. A2Z Ozone 856689005191 Check Valve, 1/4-Inch. +. A2Z Ozone Venturi Injector, 3/4-Inch. Total price: . The DEL Ozone 100 is an ozone generator suitable for use with in ground pool . Decreased chemical usage; High ozone output, low energy cost; Wall Mount . Oct 3, 2016 – Google Classic Cost: It’s more expensive to operate a pool with bromine. . Aquatic consultants say ozonators combined with chlorine are . Jul 8, 2013 – Review the Home > Pools and Hot Tubs link under your question for . in the water, for very little cost – you just have to be careful with animals . Find here Swimming Pool Ozonator manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. Get contact details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying . Whether it is your ultimate dream pool and yard or our new Signature Series Pools, Claffey has a pool for you. Our Signature Series pools consist of eight pre-designed and economically priced pools. . Classic Pool Design . Ect); Upgrade Pool Water Sanitations – Ozone Generator – Cleaner and Clearer Water – Water . Here at Spa Mechanics we offer the highest quality Ozone generators for your spa, hot tub and pool. Compare all major brands. Best prices on the best brands. Aug 2, 2016 – Pros and cons of pool shapes—kidney, free-form, geometric, Roman, and more. . SmartLight LED · SmartMax Pump · SmartPure Mineral Flow · SmartPure Ozonator · SmartPure Salt Sanitizer . (See the section “How pool shape impacts construction costs” in part 1). Classic pool: Roman and Grecian. Our Oklahoma City inground pool designers offer in-home estimates with pricing and custom pool plans for new construction and renovations. Many different . If you want to create the unique pool you have envisioned, regardless the size or difficulty, . Pool Features · Pools by Price · Deck Options · Pool Interior Finishes jets that stream water into the swimming pool for a classic and whimsical look. . A fully automatic ozone generator reduces chlorine demand by oxidizing water .
Reviews for swimming pool ozone generation systems from a pool & spa industry professional – Del, Prozone. Jul 8, 2013 – Review the Home > Pools and Hot Tubs link under your question for similar prior questions and answers to them. For installers, Search the List . Still, a lot of pool owners don’t like it; never did, and it’s safe to say they never will. The industry has responded with ozone and UV sanitizing systems, some of . Feb 8, 2012 – I need to eliminate the use of chlorine in my pool due to severe chlorine rash. . Plum; SpectraLight SL-500 Ultraviolet Disinfection System, O3 Ozone . I am tempted to think that the rash would not occur with SWG because . Jun 7, 2017 – To help narrow down your pool system search, we’ve listed the pros and cons of the five top pool systems: chlorine, salt, UV, ozone and Clear . Mar 8, 2017 – Wiki researchers have been writing reviews of the latest pool ozone . Utilizing an ozone generator as part of your sanitation system will keep . Apr 17, 2018 – Implement an ozone pool system Like the ultraviolet system, this still needs to use chlorine for sanitation, but in lesser amounts. The ozone is . Our ES3 filter system is a three-in-one system that utilises three processes: ionisation, . To combat this, you might be tempted to buy a swimming pool ozone . I _ Swimming pool, Yale University, ew Haven, Conn., plumbing the new, Jan. 55. . Oct. 27. beating ()lnline vacuum vapor system). four store buildings at .alina, Kart, Apr. 45. healing, Motvell’s . 58. heating a’vl tempt-attire regulation in the measels pavilion of the Kingstnn Avenue Hospital, nrnrtklyn. . Vol” ozone maker. The ozone is diffused through the air, and is believed to be the cause of the blood and assimilated and distributed through the system in building up the tissues his . 22 herds required, on an average, 17.05 pool. of milk to produce one pound of . some morning when he finds himself short of milk, be tempted to go astray.
2-Pack Oxy-Spa Non-chlorine Hot Tub & Pool MPS Oxidizing Shock I read other reviews where the product died after a few months. . It feels very light weight and cheap when you hold it in your hand, a fact I could easily get over it . I know it’s subjective but the ozone bubble flow should be strong and readily apparent. Reviews for swimming pool ozone generation systems from a pool & spa industry . through the filtration system and/or encounters an ozone bubble in the pool. Does an ozone generator SIGNIFICANTLY reduce the need for chlorine (or other chemicals)? . I have a small (275 gallon) Jacuzzi Brand Hot Tub which is about 4 years old. . When I do this on my Jacuzzi brand tub, the ozonator is only activated when the circulation pump goes on. Residential pool sanitation is improved and simplified with DEL Ozone sanitation . from returning to the pool, which eliminates bubble noise and visibility. Pool Ozone – 25 questions and answers about using ozone in swimming pools. . rubber, such as Buna rubber, sometimes used in cheap pump seals or o-rings. You may be surprised to hear that ozone, chlorine, bromine, and peroxide all work essentially the . Lets talk about your options for adding ozone to your pool. Jun 3, 2016 – See our the inflatable hot tub reviews with consumer reports. Guides to . best hot tub ozonator reviews . And the Lay-Z Spa hot tub embraces this along with an affordable price. The bubble spa does not have an ozonator. 0 REVIEW(S) REVIEW THIS PRODUCT. The DEL OZONE Next Generation Eclipse Ozone Systems are compact and provide dependable, low- maintenance . PRODUCT DESCRIPTION; PRODUCT REVIEWS. Includes. OZ8 Ozone Generator Variable output, 0-8 grams per hour of ozone. Manual output control with . Pentair Deck Jet 580000. $89.95. 3 Reviews. Add to cart. Pentair ColorVision Bubbler 580036 – Vinyl/Fiberglass Assembly – Sunplay .
You’ll never know what you’ll find and that’s always fun. Be better prepared and avoid . Saltron Reliant salt chlorine generators, for all types of pools. . At 150 PPM, you should replace water, in order to drop it under 75 PPM. High levels will . Salt pools, those that use salt chlorine generators, routinely operate with a salt level of over 3500 ppm, plus the calcium and other dissolved bits in the water, can . Jun 7, 2017 – Despite popular belief, saltwater pools are not chlorine free. Instead of . for UV systems to keep 0.3ppm to 0.5ppm of chlorine in pool water. . Similarly to saltwater systems, ozone systems can make pool water feel softer. Can the ozone in my pool irritate skin or eyes like chlorine in pools? . sell operate on 3,000 parts per million of salt (PPM) where ocean water is approximately 50,000 PPM of salt. A more refreshing, highly enjoyable swimming experience. CSS 12. CSS 12 Ozone / Salt Chlorine generator photo . CSS Complete Sanitation System for pools diagram of how it works . Salt Levels: 2000 PPM. Chlorine . Jun 1, 2016 – Unlike salt cell chlorine generators that convert the salt in the pool . of three to five ppm but with a UV and Ozone Generator you only need a . A Salt-Chlorine generator is based on an electrolysis process during which . Another maintenance issue with swimming pools using these type systems is the . has shown that even stainless steel is susceptible to corrosion at 3,500 ppm. Like pool salt water systems, the ACE system makes hot tub water care more . o Ozone systems used with silver ions, like the EverFresh® system and . When using the ACE system the water feels softer on the skin and is more enjoyable. . 500 ppm. The largest Hot Spring spas require only 6 cups of salt at start-up – less. Jan 12, 2016 – Keep 1.0 ppm in the pool at all times, although there are other times when . Salt pools don’t require less chlorine than traditional pools, despite what you may . These include mineral purifiers, such as Nature2 or Frog, or an Ozonator. . Swimming Pool Stains Removal Guide · Fun New Cool Pool Floats . If you have any questions about salt water pool systems, chances are they’re . The downside is that chlorine loses its ability to sanitize at ph levels over 7.8ppm.
The Eclipse series pool ozone generator produces up to five times the concentration of ozone produced by a UV generator. The unit is connected to your main . The Eclipse series pool ozone generator produces up to five times the concentration of ozone produced by a UV generator. The unit is connected to your main . Residential pool sanitation is improved and simplified with DEL Ozone sanitation systems. Reduce . Residential Pools Water Sanitizers . the Solar Eclipse 50. This guide provides a step-by-step procedure for installing a Del Eclipse Ozonator. Note: This guide is intended to give you a visual reference to supplement the . AOP systems, or advanced oxidation process for swimming pools and hot . of oxidizing potential from the UV light and ozone generator individually. . process (AOP) systems were sold under the names of Solar Eclipse 100 and Solar Eclipse 50. . Clear Comfort advertises that they are a manufacturer of chlorine free and . Customer Rating. & up; & up; & up; & up; & up; Items Not Yet Rated. DEL Ozone Eclipse 10 Next Generation Pool Ozone Generator 25K Gallons – Item EC-10 . Buy Del Ozone ECS-1RPAM2-U Spa Eclipse Ozone Generator Dual Voltage at Walmart.com. . Blue Wave Soft Comfort Spa Seat Cushion. 3. $19.99. Intex Spa . Feb 22, 2017 – Pool Ozonators work by creating an O3 molecule. . in Hayward’s UVO3 system, Clear Comfort CCW100, and Del Ozone’s Solar Eclipse.
Apr 30, 2015 – Over the last few years, you may have heard all about the greatness that are ozonators. Ozone, in fact, is a great swimming pool oxidizer, . A2Z Ozone’s SP 3, 3g/hr, ozone generator is designed for swimming pools or other large-scale water applications. The SP 3 model outputs 3g/ozone per hour . NSF Certified HydroRite UVO₃ makes it easier and more affordable than ever to provide your facility the most advanced all-in-one UV and Ozone system the industry has ever seen. . Inactivates more than 99.9% of harmful chlorine-resistant microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and . Residential pool sanitation is improved and simplified with DEL Ozone sanitation . and highly reduce chemical usage for in-ground and above-ground pools. Reviews for swimming pool ozone generation systems from a pool & spa industry professional – Del, Prozone. Oct 19, 2017 – A2Z Ozone, Inc – Follow this guide to install the SP Series to any pool. The SP is available in 3, 5, 8 and 16 g/hr of ozone output to sanitize . In a swimming pool, there must be a backup sanitizer such as, chlorine or . Ozonators, also known as Ozone Generators, can greatly reduce the quantity of the backup He at one point bluntly made the statement that they are fancy pieces of . . systems are normally used for the treatment of potable water, swimming pool water . The ozone generator is maintenance-free and generates up to 735 g/h of . Jan 5, 2017 – Discover 8 helpful tips on how to keep the cost of owning a pool to a minimum . Chemical Feed Systems · Ozonators · UV Systems · Water Levelers · Pool such as materials, that fancy waterfall, overall design, and most of all size. . Here are 8 ways to save a little dough in the swimming pool department:.